Hamlet by William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare was an English poet, playwright and actor. He wrote a total of nine tragic plays, out of which Hamlet is the longest one. The play is divided into five acts and is set in Denmark. It dramatizes the revenge of the central character Prince Hamlet. His uncle, Claudius, had murdered his own brother and seized the throne by remarrying his deceased brother’s widow Gertrude.

The story begins when one day Hamlet’s friend Horatio encounters a ghost of the late King Hamlet. The ghost reveals to Hamlet that it was Claudius who murdered him in order to usurp the throne. The ghost then asks Hamlet to take the revenge on his behalf. Therefore, Hamlet takes on the ‘antic disposition’ to find out whether Claudius killed his father or not. However, he gets too involved in faking his madness that he hurts Ophelia’s feelings, Polonius’ daughter and the love of his life. And Ophelia, hurt by his remarks, commits suicide by drowning herself. Further, he blames and insults his mother for his condition. Later, Hamlet, accidently, kills Polonius instead of Claudius which makes Polonius’ son, Laertes ectremely furious. Laertes then, conspires with Claudius to kill Hamlet through the poisoned wine and sword. However, the poisoned wine gets consumed by Gertrude and she dies. Later, all the three – Claudius, Laertes & Hamlet die in the act of killing each other. But before dying, Hamlet names Fortinbras, the Norwegian prince, his successor and the play ends.

Hamlet, is scene as a hero who struggled a lot with his psychological conflicts. The play also contains a psychoanalytic angle of ‘Oedipal Complex’, a famous theory stated by psychoanalytic critic Sigmund Freud. The “Oedipal Complex” has been projected through the relationship that Hamlet shares with his mother. It highlights his repressed thoughts about her. He adores her in sexual terms but is also furious at her. Hamlet begs his mother not to sleep with Claudius but she refuses. This is similar to D.H.Lawrence’s ’Sons and Lovers’ where the mother refuses his son’s request of not to sleep with the father.  Moreover, Hamlet calls her mother almost a ‘whore’ as she remarried without completing proper mourning of his dead husband. This incident is similar to Joseph Conrad’s ‘Heart of Darkness’ where the American mistress, after mourning the death of his lover Kurtz, goes away with another person.

The play also adopts nuances from Christian ideology as Hamlet talks about the impermanence of life and karma. Hamlet’s decision of not killing Claudius in the praying form depicts his knowledge about sins. Also, he remains in a confused state of “To be or not to be”, throughout the play. But, ultimately, Hamlet kills Claudius in the end and becomes a sinner himself.

 

Shakespeare’s The Tempest – A Critical Reading

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The Tempest was Shakespeare’s last play via which he bid adieu to the stage. It is considered to be one of his shortest plays ever written. But, as they say – small but extremely influential. The Tempest was written in 1610-11. And, like his other plays, Shakespeare always had a lot to comment upon through his plays. We saw in Othello, how Shakespeare touched the topic of interracial marriage or in Hamlet, he talked about the impermanence of life, revenge, Karma, etc. Continue reading “Shakespeare’s The Tempest – A Critical Reading”

Ways of Decoding the Language

Language is the way of expressing our thoughts.

We use language to say what we are feeling, our emotions, the thoughts swinging in our minds, etc,etc. It is such a helpful tool that a human has discovered to convey his/her feelings towards others.

We all speak different languages like French, Spanish, Italian, Latin,and a thousands of others, but the common thing is that though we use different words but our ultimate goal is to convey what we feel. Those who fumble/stutter while speaking, find themselves comfortable in writing their emotions down.

But, language also depends on who is interpreting it ( Give it a thought!)

Language plays multiple roles – deceptive, elusive, disguised, etc.

Many scholars have used language as codes to be decoded by their followers only, and some have painted scriptures with hidden messages in them. Even geometrical figures have been used with some kind of secrecy in them. This all contributes to the fact that we all have been using language as a kind of shield to protect our real thoughts underneath. Let us say, play writers like – Shakespeare, Chaucer, Marlowe, or Homer – wrote certain things on surface but meant something else beneath. These things can only be deciphered by reading between the lines.

One person deciphers the language according to his/her own favorable conditions. Don’t we do that all the time? We just decipher it in whatever way we want to decipher it. For example, we could easily misunderstand a sarcastic remark as a compliment, depending our ability to understand sarcasm. Now, what else plays a big role in deciphering the language is our individual personality. For instance, if, I am a good person then, my perception of others would also be similar. If, I know I am honest then, I perceive other people to be honest too.

So, what does this shows? It shows that whatever our ” I ” wants to accept is what we see from our “EYES”.

So, my point is that when we carefully peel out the layers, we come across the real meaning, then only we get to know how beautiful this invention of LANGUAGE is. Some people using the language so loosely while other using it so carefully (choosing words carefully).

It becomes a positive tool when the man knows its value and could even influence people with his/her words.

I must say, the art of writing or even speaking is really a gift to certain people by God.

“Some can create big wonders with this tool while some can create blunders!!”

Twelfth Night By William Shakespeare

12thnightIt’s a brilliant romantic-comic-tragic play, by the greatest play-writer in literature, William Shakespeare. It was his last of comedies. The play is about role-playing, crisscrossing gender roles, breaking gender norms and a lot of confusion.

The profundity of every line, Feste, the jester’s, dialogues and Shakespeare’s connoisseur writing skills just adds beauty to the whole play. Shakespeare has brilliantly used the “Fool” of the play, to show mirror to the society of the realities and has given him full agency to connect with the middle-class audience of that time, reflecting the harsh treatment that was used towards the “not-so-rich” people.

“Twelfth Night” literally means the night of January 6, a night of revelry and misrule. The play opens up with Viola getting shipwrecked and losing her twin brother Sebastian. Simultaneously, we see Orsino, a pining lover of Olivia, the countess, desiring for her love. Olivia has forbidden any men to come to her and ask for marriage, as she too has recently suffered a loss of her father and brother, so, she demands no presence of men anymore. Viola takes up the role of the eunuch and starts working in Orsino’s court as a page boy, but under those male clothes, her feminine heat falls for Orsino.

But, for the sake of Orsino’s love for Olivia, Viola goes to Olivia to convey Orsino’s love message to Olivia and Olivia falls for the male Viola that is Cesario. The role-plays create chaos until Viola’s real brother Sebastian arrives, marrying Olivia and restore the society’s structure.

The role of Feste, the fool is very important and it is seen that he is the only one wise and intellectual than the other characters, who become utterly foolish in love. Other comic characters include- Sir Toby (Olivia’s Uncle), Sir Andrew, Maria (housemaid) and Malvolia (a servant).

Malvolia depicts the higher ambitions of low-class people, who are not treated justifiably by the upper-class people.

The play is very complicated as, it operates on different levels and point of views. But, of course, is a beautiful piece by Shakespeare and deals with a very bold and sensitive issue of gender-roles, beneath it’s surface.

Literature lovers, do get a copy of it!!

You can also watch the play at- 

 

Multiple Role Plays Of Language

Is language only good enough for communicating or does it have any other purpose ? Read ahead to know the multiple role plays of language.

We use language to communicate our feelings, our emotions, the thoughts swinging in our minds, etc,etc. It is such a helpful tool that a human has discovered to convey his/her feelings towards others. 

We all speak different languages like- French, Spanish, Italian, Latin,and a thousands of others, but the common thing is that though we use different words our ultimate goal is to convey what we feel. Those who are not good at expressing, find themselves comfortable in penning down their emotions.

But, language also depends on who is interpreting it ( Give it a thought!!)

Language plays multiple roles- deceptive, elusive, disguised and etc.

Many scholars have used language as codes to be decoded by their followers only or have painted scriptures with hidden messages in them or even geometrical figures with some kind of secrecy in them, which all contributes to the fact that we all have been using language as a kind of shield to protect our real thoughts underneath. Let us say, play writers like – Shakespeare or Chaucer or Marlowe or Homer – writing things but meaning something else, which we studying deeply could understand the profundity with which they have been written.

One person decipher the language according to his/her own favourable conditions. Don’t we do that all the time? We just decipher it in whatever we wanna decipher it. For ex- A friend saying to us sarcastically, but we misunderstanding it and taking it as a compliment instead. So, what does it show? It shows that whatever our ” I ” wants to accept is that what we see from our “EYES”.

So, all my point is that when we carefully peel out the layers, we come across the real meaning, then only we get to know how beautiful this invention of LANGUAGE is. Some people using the language so loosely while other using it so carefully ( choosing words carefully).

It becomes a positive tool when the man knows it’s value and could even influence people with his/her words. 

I must say, the art of writing or even speaking is really a gift to certain people by God.

“Some can create big wonders with this tool while some, blunders!!”